Bhatia and Craig’s Elements of Psychology and Mental Hygiene for Nurses in India
Aruna Balachandra
Price : 360.00
ISBN : 978-81-7371-904-2
Pages : 400
Binding : Paperback
Book Size : 180 x 240 mm
Year : 2013
Series :
Territorial Rights : World

About the Book

B.D.Bhatia and Margaretta Craig wrote this classic textbook for nurses in India in 1958. The second edition was published 50 years later, in 2008. In a span of just five years, the third edition is being brought out to accommodate changes in the syllabus and to meet the felt needs in the student community.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition
Preface to the First Edition
INC Syllabus for Psychology

1. The Nature and Scope of Psychology
History and origin of the science of psychology – Meaning and definitions of psychology – Psychology as a Science – Behaviour – Relation of psychology to other fields of study – Scope of psychology – Branches of psychology –Applied psychology – Scope of psychology with special relevance to nursing – Psychology and the art of effective nursing

2. Methods of Psychology
The introspective method – The observational method – The experimental method – The clinical or case study method – The survey method – The genetic or developmental method – Testing method

3. The Mind and Body–Mind Relationship
The mind – The conscious, preconscious and unconscious – Analysis of conscious mental phenomena – Altered states of consciousness – the Body–mind relationship – Effect of the body on mental functioning – Effect of the mind on bodily functions – Modulation process in health and illness – Relevance of body–mind relationship to nursing

4. Genetics and Behaviour
Genetics – Heredity – Principles of heredity – Genetic disorders – Environment – Influence of heredity and the environment – Personality and temperament – Interaction of heredity and environment – Individual differences

5. The Nervous System
Parts of the nervous system – The central nervous system – The peripheral nervous system –What nurses should know about the nervous system in illness – Conditions which can affect the nervous system

6. The Sense Organs, Muscles and Glands
The sense organs – Sensory disorders and defects – Psychology of sensation – Properties of Sensations – Common sensory abnormalities – Sensory processes: the patient and the nurse – The muscles – Nursing and the effect of illness on muscles – The glands – What nurses should know about glands.

7. Attention and Perception

Attention – Meaning and definition of attention – Characteristics of attention – Determinants of attention –Varieties of attention – Duration and degree of attention –– Alterations in attention – Perception – Meaning of perception – Factors affecting perception – Principles of perception – Errors in perception – Relevance of attention and perception for nurses

8. Learning
The nature of learning – Factors affecting learning – Factors related to the learner – External factors that influence learning – Factors related to method of learning – Process of learning – Types of learning – Modes of learning – Learning by trial and error – Laws of learning – Learning by insight –Learning by observation –Learning by conditioning –Transfer of learning – Theories of transfer of learning – Types of transfer – Habits – Definition and characteristics of habits – Basis of habit formation – Types of habits – What nurses should know about habits – Skills – Acquiring skills – Other kinds of skills – Advantages of skills – Study habits –Studying for examinations – Importance of knowing about learning for nurses

9. Memory
Memory process – Theories of memory – Methods of measuring memory – Factors influencing memory – Individual factors – Method of memorisation or improving memory/memory training – Development of memory – Pathology of memory – Forgetting – Causes of Forgetting –Relevance to nursing

10. Thinking
Nature of thinking – Elements of thinking – Concepts  – Levels of thinking – Development of thinking – Errors in thinking – Types of thinking – Controlled vs free thinking – Convergent vs divergent thinking  – Concrete vs abstract thinking – Critical thinking – Creative thinking – Problem solving – Process of problem solving – Obstacles to problem solving – Reasoning – Language comprehension – Relationship with language and communication – Listening skills – Importance of thinking skills for nurses

11. Intelligence and Aptitude
What is intelligence? – Uses of intelligence – Types of intelligence – Theories of intelligence – Individual differences in intelligence – Mental age and IQ – Interpretation of results – Classification of individuals on the basis of intelligence –  Mental retardation – Giftedness – Assessment of intelligence – Types of intelligence tests  – Uses of intelligence tests – Aptitude – Meaning of aptitude – Types of aptitude and aptitude tests  Relevance of intelligence and aptitude for nurses – Psychometric Assessment of Cognitive Functions

12. Motivation
Motivation: meaning and related concepts – Types of mtivation –Motivational cycle – Characterisitics of motivation – Motives and behaviour –Classification of motives – Theories of motivation – Maslow’s hierarchy of needs – McCleeland’s theory of motivation – Freud’s theory of motivation – Relevance of motivation for nurses

13. Frustration and Conflict
What is frustration? –Sources of frustration – Is frustration always desirable? – How to deal with frustrations – Task-oriented methods – Conflict – Types of conflict – Conflict resolution –  Methods of conflict resolution – Nurses and conflict management

14. Emotions and Stress
Emotions – Definitions and meaning – Components of emotion – Characteristics of emotions –External and internal changes in emotional reactions – Theories of emotions – Emotional situations – Emotional intelligence – Emotional adjustment –Emotions in health and illness – Assessment of emotions –Tools to assess expressive reactions – Alterations in emotions – Relevance of studying about emotions for nurses – Control of emotions – Stress –Definition and meaning – Stressors – Classification of stressors – Stressors across lifespan development  –The stress cycle –Effects of stress  – Adaptation – General adaptation syndrome –  Coping – Types of coping strategies – Nursing implications of stress and coping – Stress management for nurses

15. Attitudes, Will and Character
Meaning and nature of attitude – Functions of attitude – Development of attitude – Learning of attitudes in the family – Personal experience – Social influences – Factual knowledge and mass media – Behaviour and attitudes – Change of attitude – Assessment of attitudes – Relevance of attitudes for nurses – Will or voluntary action – Factors and conditions conducive to will – Character

16. Personality
The nature of personality – Theories of personality – Trait theories of personality – Type theories of personality – Psychoanalytic theories of personality – Neo-Freudian approaches  –Factors influencing personality – Biological factors – Environmental or social factors – Psychological factors – Assessment of personality – Personality and behavioural changes during illness – Alterations in personality – Relevance of personality for nurses – Personality traits required for nurses – Understanding the personality of patients

17. Developmental Psychology
Principles of development – Psychology of people at different ages – What nurses should know about people of different ages in health and in illness

18. Psychology of Vulnerable Individuals
Psychology of the challenged – Types of disability – Effects of disability – Nursing relevance – Psychology of women – Women and health – Women and infertility – Violence against women – Nursing relevance – Dealing with alcoholics and their families – Post-traumatic stress disorder – Psychology of the sick and ill – How patients react to chronic illness – Effects of illness and hospitalisation Implications for nursing – The psychology of groups – Characteristics of a group – Types of groups – Family as a social group – Social groups – Professional groups – Importance of groups in health and illness – How the group influences individual behaviour – Leadership in groups – Group morale  Relevance of group psychology for nurses

19. Mental Health and Mental Hygiene
The concept of mental health –  Characterisitcs of a mentally healthy individual – Foundations of mental health – Warning signs of poor mental health – The concept of mental hygiene – Promotive and preventive mental health strategies and services – Mental health and mental hygiene across an individual’s lifespan –Mental hygiene in the prenatal period –Mental hygiene in infancy – Mental hygiene in early childhood – Mental hygiene in later childhood – Mental hygiene in adolescence – Mental hygiene in adulthood – Mental hygiene in old age – Role of nurses in the promotion of mental health and in the prevention of problems

20. Ego defence Mechanisms

Definition of ego defence mechanisms –Types of defence mechanisms – Adjustment and maladjustment – Causes of maladjustment – Social and personal adjustment – Relevance of adjustment to nursing

21. Mental Illness–Symptoms, Causes and Treatment
The nature of mental illness or disorder – General symptoms of mental illness – General causes of mental illness – Heredity – Organic causes – Other biological causes – Epochal crisis –Psychological or psychogenic factors in mental illness – Socio-cultural and socio-economic factors – Classification and description of mental illnesses –Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders – Psychoses – Mood disorders – Personality disorders– Treatment of the mentally ill – Nursing relevance

22. Guidance and Counselling
Guidance: definition and meaning – Principles of guidance – Types of guidance services – Difference between guidance and counselling – Counselling: definition and meaning – Couselling: goals and outcomes – Principles of Counselling – Process of counselling– Counsellor skills – Characteristics of a counsellor – Types of counselling – Relevance of counselling for nurses

23. Psychological Assessments and Tests
Principles or characteristics of psychological tests – Test development – Types of test – Tools used in studying behaviour – Uses of psychological tests – Interpretation of tests – Limitations of tests – Role of the nurse in psychological assessment

 Further Reading
Model Examination Papers

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Contributors (Author(s), Editor(s), Translator(s), Illustrator(s) etc.)

Dr Aruna Balachandra retired as Reader, Justice Basheer Ahmed Sayeed (JBAS) Women’s College in Chennai. She edited the second edition of this book.