Microwave Engineering: Fundamentals, Design and Applications (Second Edition)

Subal Kar

ISBN: 9789393330024 | Year: 2022 | Paperback | Pages: 864 | Language : English

Book Size: 180 x 240 mm | Territorial Rights: World

Price: On Request

Microwave Engineering: Fundamentals, Design and Applications, Second Edition, emphasises the basic concepts, design techniques and applications of microwave engineering in a markedly different manner. Based on feedback from students and faculty, this new edition fully covers the latest AICTE syllabus for Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) students. It also covers the syllabus of most universities abroad, for graduate as well as post-graduate courses of ECE.

Salient features
  • All the special features and chapters of the first edition are preserved while additional new material finds a place.
  • Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools and 3D electromagnetic field simulators have been used to solve design problems in relevant chapters. 
  • Analytical derivations for klystron, TWT, magnetron and gyrotron have been included in Chapter 9, while those for gunn, IMPATT and MESFET/HEMT devices have been included in Chapter 10.
  • Simulator-based design of microwave power amplifiers has been included in Chapter 11.
  • Microwave mixers have been discussed in detail in Chapter 12 with simulator-based design problems.
  • Radar Principle and Systems has been upgraded to Radar and Radio-aids to Navigation (Chapter 14).
  • RFID, RF MEMS for microwave components, microwave and THz imaging have been included as emerging applications in Chapter 19.
  • Review questions that help in self-assessment are provided in each chapter.
  • Recapitulations in each chapter, have been given a new and concise avatar.
  • New appendices on field analysis of coaxial line, a brief analytical review of parallel-plate waveguide, non-linearity and distortion have been included in the website along with the existing appendices.

Subal Kar is former Professor and Head of the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics, University of Calcutta. His fields of specialisation cover microwave and millimetre-wave devices and circuits, metamaterials, THz imaging, optical communication and high energy physics. He has published a large number of research papers in international journals, contributed chapters in edited books, authored another textbook and has three patents to his credit. Dr Kar was visiting scientist to Kyoto University, Japan (1997), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA (1999–2000), Oxford University, UK (2013) as well as to other Institutes and Universities in Europe and the USA. Dr Kar received the Young Scientist Award of URSI and IEEE MTT as well as the Fulbright Award of the USA Government. He is a Fulbright Fellow, Senior Member of IEEE, Fellow of IETE and Fellow VEDA Society.

Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Microwaves and Their Applications
1.2 Importance of Microwaves
1.3 Why is ‘Microwaves’ a Special Subject?
1.4 A Brief History of the Development of Microwave Engineering
Review Questions

Chapter 2 Electromagnetics Revisited
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Time-varying Fields and Maxwell’s Equations
2.3 The Wave Equation and Plane Electromagnetic Waves in Unbounded Media
2.4 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Material Media
2.4.1 Principle of Dielectric Heating and Microwave Oven
2.5 Electromagnetic Power Flow and Poynting Vector
2.6 Polarisation of Electromagnetic Wave
2.7 Wave Propagation in Interfacing Media
2.7.1 Electromagnetic Boundary Conditions
2.7.2 Reflection and Transmission of Waves for Normal and Oblique Incidence Normal incidence on plane boundaries Oblique incidence on plane boundaries
2.8 Radiation of Electromagnetic Waves and Antennae
2.8.1 Retarded Vector Potential for Antenna Analysis
2.8.2 Antenna Characteristic Parameters
Review Questions
Numerical Problems

Chapter 3 High Frequency Behaviour of Transmission Lines
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Analysis of HF Transmission Lines
3.2.1 Transmission Line Equations
3.2.2 Characteristic Parameters of HF Transmission Lines
3.2.3 Terminated HF Transmission Lines
3.2.4 Transmission Line as HF Circuit Elements
3.3 Smith Chart and its Applications
3.4 Planar Transmission Lines
3.4.1 Microstrip Line Even and odd mode in coupled transmission lines
3.4.2 Variants of Microstrip Line Inverted microstrip and trapped inverted microstrip
3.4.3 Slot-line
3.4.4 Coplanar-line
3.4.5 Fin-line
3.4.6 Dielectric integrated guide
Review Questions
Numerical Problems

Chapter 4 Guided Structures: Waveguides and Cavity Resonators
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Rectangular Waveguide
4.2.1 Transverse Electric (TE)-mode/H-wave
4.2.2 Transverse Magnetic (TM)-mode/E-wave
4.2.3 TE-mode vs TM-mode and the Dominant Mode
4.2.4 Field Patterns in a Rectangular Waveguide
4.2.5 Wave Dispersion and Wave Velocities
4.2.6 Choice of Waveguide Dimensions and Characteristics of Standard Rectangular Waveguides
4.2.7 Launching of Modes in Rectangular Waveguides
4.2.8 Power Handling Capacity of a Rectangular Waveguide
4.2.9 Attenuation Due to Losses in a Rectangular Waveguide
4.3 Circular Waveguide
4.3.1 TM and TE Modes in Circular Guides
4.3.2 Launching of Modes in Circular Waveguides
4.3.3 Characteristics of Standard Circular Waveguides
4.3.4 Attenuation in Circular Waveguides
4.4 Cavity Resonators
4.4.1 Rectangular Cavity Resonator
4.4.2 The Quality Factor (Q) of the TE101 Cavity Mode
4.4.3 Cylindrical Cavity Resonator
4.4.4 The Quality Factor (Q) of the TE011 Cavity Mode
4.4.5 Mode Chart
4.5 Strip/Disc Resonator
4.6 Dielectric Resonator
4.7 Coupling and Tuning of Microwave Resonators
Review Questions
Numerical Problems

Chapter 5 Microwave Network and Scattering Matrix

5.1 Introduction
5.2 S-parameter Formulation of Microwave Network
5.3 Properties of S-parameters
5.4 Signal Flow Graphs: Decomposition Rules and Mason’s Rule
Review Questions

Chapter 6 Microwave Passive Circuit Components
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Waveguide and Planar Transmission Line Based Components
6.2.1 Terminations
6.2.2 Tee-Junctions and Hybrids
6.2.3 Tuners
6.2.4 Directional Coupler
6.2.5 Attenuator
6.2.6 Isolator
6.2.7 Circulator
6.2.8 Phase Shifter
6.2.9 Bends and Corners
6.2.10 Waveguide Twist, Transitions and Adaptor
6.2.11 Flanges and Connectors
6.3 Lumped-circuit Elements at Microwave Frequency
6.4 Distributed-circuit Elements Using Microstrip Transmission Line
6.5 S-Matrix of Microwave Components
6.5.1 S-matrix of Directional Coupler
6.5.2 S-matrix of Magic Tee
6.5.3 S-matrix of Circulator
Review Questions

Chapter 7 Impedance Matching in Transmission Lines and Waveguides
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Stub Matching
7.2.1 Single Stub Matching
7.2.2 Double Stub Matching
7.2.3 Smith Chart Technique for Solving Stub Matching Problems
7.3 Impedance Transformers
7.3.1 Frequency Response of Quarter-Wave Transformer
7.3.2 Theory of Small Reflections Binomial stepped impedance transformer Tchebyscheff stepped impedance transformer Tapered impedance matching transformers
7.4 Inductive/Capacitive Windows (iris) and Matching Screws in Waveguide
7.5 Impedance Matching with Lumped Component/Planar Distributed Line Reactive Elements
Review Questions
Numerical Problems

Chapter 8 Microwave Filters
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Insertion-loss Method for Low-pass Prototype Design
8.2.1 Low-pass Prototype Filter Design Technique
8.3 Filter Transformations from Prototype
8.3.1 Prototype to Actual Low-pass Transformation
8.3.2 Low-pass Prototype to High-pass Transformation
8.3.3 Low-pass to Band-pass and Band-stop Transformations
8.4 Microwave Implementation
8.4.1 Richard’s Transformation
8.4.2 Kuroda’s Identities
8.4.3 Impedance and Admittance Inverters
8.5 Practical Microwave Filters—Analysis and Design
8.5.1 Stepped-impedance (High–Low) Low-pass Filter
8.5.2 Coupled-line Band-pass Filter
8.5.3 Coupled-resonator Band-stop Filter
Review Questions
Numerical Problems

Chapter 9 Microwave Tube Devices
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Linear Beam Tubes
9.2.1 Klystron Two cavity/multi-cavity klystron amplifier Reflex klystron oscillator
9.2.2 Travelling-wave tube Principle of operation Analytical derivations for TWT amplifier:
9.3 Crossed-field tubes
9.3.1 Magnetron Principle of operation Analysis of cylindrical magnetron Practical considerations
9.3.2 Pulsing of Magnetron with Pulse Forming Network (PFN)
9.3.3 Coaxial Magnetron
9.4 Fast-Wave Electron Tubes
9.4.1 Gyrotron Principle of operation Analytical derivations for gyrotron Gyromonotron or gyrotron oscillator
Review Questions
Numerical Problems

Chapter 10 Solid-State and Quantum Electronic Devices at Microwave Frequencies
10.1 Microwave Solid-state Devices
10.1.1 Introduction
10.1.2 Microwave Solid-State Diodes Schottky diode, tunnel diode PIN diode and its applications Transferred electron device (Gunn diode) Avalanche transit-time device (IMPATT diode)
10.1.3 Microwave Transistors MESFET and HEMT devices HBT device
10.2 Quantum Electronic Microwave Device—MASER
Review Questions
Numerical Problems

Chapter 11 Microwave Oscillators, Amplifiers and Power Combiners with Solid-state Devices
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Oscillator/Amplifier with Two-terminal Device (Diode)
11.2.1 Fundamental Theoretical Background of MicrowaveDiode Oscillator/Amplifier
11.2.2 Oscillator/Amplifier Configurations with IMPATT/Gunn Diodes
11.2.3 IMPATT Oscillator and VCO Design with 3D Electromagnetic Field Simulator
11.3 Amplifier/Oscillator with Three-terminal Microwave Device (Transistor)
11.3.1 Fundamental Theoretical Background of Transistor Amplifier/Oscillator
11.3.2 Low-noise Amplifier vs Power Amplifier
11.3.3 Design of LNA and PA using EDA Simulation Tool
11.3.4 Broadband Transistor Amplifiers at Microwave Frequency
11.3.5 Dielectric Resonator (DR) Based Transistor Oscillator
11.4 Power Combiners with IMPATT/Gunn Diodes
Review Questions

Chapter 12 Microwave Mixers
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Diode-based Microwave Mixers
12.2.1 Single Device/Single-ended Diode Mixer
12.2.2 Balanced Mixer with Diode
12.2.3 Subharmonically Pumped Mixer
12.3 Transistor-based Microwave Mixers
12.4 Image-rejection Mixer
12.5 Distributed Mixers
12.6 Mixer Design using EDA Simulation Tool
Review Questions

Chapter 13 Microwave Antennae and Wave Propagation
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Principle of Operation and Performance Parameters of Conventional Microwave Antennae
13.2.1 Horn Antenna
13.2.2 Reflector Antenna Feed mechanism for parabolic antennae Fan-beam with parabolic antenna
13.2.3 Slot Antenna
13.2.4 Lens Antenna
13.2.5 Surface Wave (Dielectric Rod) Antenna
13.3 Microstrip Patch Antenna
13.4 Dielectric Resonator Antenna
13.5 Principle of Microwave Signal Propagation
13.5.1 Line-of-Sight (LOS) Propagation
13.5.2 Atmospheric Duct Propagation
13.5.3 Troposperic Propagation
13.5.4 Fading and its Mitigation
Review Questions

Chapter 14 Radar and Radio-aids to Navigation
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Radar Range Performance Equation
14.2.1 Introduction
14.2.2 Primary Radar Range Equation Comments from range equation
14.2.3 Effect of Noise on Range Equation
14.2.4 The Generation of Echo Signal in Primary Radar
14.2.5 Secondary (Beacon) Radar Range Equation
14.3 Pulse and CW Radar
14.3.1 Introduction
14.3.2 Maximum Unambiguous Range and Minimum Range Resolution of Pulse Radar
14.3.3 Bandwidth Requirement of Pulse and CW Radar
14.3.4 System Block Diagram of Pulse Radar
14.4 Radar Cross-section of Targets and Radar Clutter
14.4.1 Radar Cross-section of Targets
14.4.2 Radar Clutter
14.5 CW and FM–CW radar
14.5.1 Introduction
14.5.2 Doppler Effect in Radar
14.5.3 Principle of FM–CW Radar
14.5.4 System Block Diagram of CW and FM–CW Radar
14.6 Pulse Doppler and MTI Radar
14.6.1 Introduction
14.6.2 MTI Radar Principle
14.6.3 MTI Radar System Block Diagram
14.6.4 Blind Speed and Multiple Staggered PRF to Mitigate the Effect of Blind Speed
14.7 Surveillance and Tracking Radar
14.7.1 Introduction
14.7.2 Effect of Scanning on Range Performance
14.7.3 Tracking Radar Principle and Techniques
14.8 Special Radar Techniques—Synthetic Aperture and Pulse Compression Radar
14.8.1 Synthetic Aperture Radar
14.8.2 Pulse Compression Radar
14.9 Radio-aids to Navigation
14.9.1 Introduction
14.9.2 Conventional RAN Systems Direction finder (DF) Very High Frequency (VHF) Omni-directional Range (VOR) Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) and TACtical Air Navigation (TACAN) Instrument Landing System (ILS)/Microwave Landing System (MLS) Hyperbolic navigation systems
14.9.3 Satellite-based Navigation and Global Positioning System (GPS) Global Positioning System (GPS)
Review Questions
Numerical Problems

Chapter 15 Microwave Measurement Techniques
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Impedance Measurement at Microwave Frequencies
15.2.1 SWD Technique of Impedance Measurement
15.2.2 Reflectometer Technique of Impedance Measurement
15.2.3 Bridge Technique of Impedance Measurement
15.3 Detection and Measurement of Power at Microwave Frequencies
15.3.1 Microwave Power Detector
15.3.2 Bolometer Technique of Microwave Power Measurement
15.3.3 Microwave Power Meter
15.3.4 Peak Power Measurement
15.4 Measurement of Quality Factor (Q) of Microwave Cavities
15.4.1 VSWR or Impedance Method of Q Measurement
15.4.2 Transient Decay or Decrement Method
15.4.3 Dynamic Methods of Q measurement
15.5 Microwave Frequency Measurement
15.5.1 Mechanical Technique of Frequency Measurement—Wavemeter
15.5.2 Electronic Technique of Frequency Measurement—Frequency Counter
15.6 Antenna Measurement at Microwave Frequency
15.6.1 Horn Antenna Measurement
15.7 Measurement of Dielectric Constant and Loss Factor of Materials at Microwave Frequencies
15.8 Measurement of Noise Figure and Phase-noise
15.8.1 Noise Figure and its Measurement
15.8.2 Phase Noise and its Characterisation for Microwave Oscillators
15.9 Fundamentals of Spectrum Analyser and Network Analyser
15.9.1 Spectrum Analyser Introduction Basic principle and block diagram of spectrum analyser A few passing comments
15.9.2 Network Analyser Introduction Block diagram to understand VNA operation VNA calibration
Review Questions

Chapter 16 Microwave Integrated Circuits
16.1 Introduction
16.2 HMIC vs MMIC
16.3 Fabrication Process Steps of HMIC and MMIC
16.3.1 HMIC Fabrication
16.3.2 MMIC Fabrication
16.4 Materials for HMIC and MMIC Fabrication
16.4.1 Substrate Materials
16.4.2 Conductor Dielectric and Resistive Materials
16.5 Fabrication Processes Related with HMIC and MMIC
16.5.1 Diffusion, Ion-implantation and Epitaxial Techniques
16.5.2 Masked Lithography and Mask-less Lithography
16.5.3 Thick and Thin-film Technology
Review Questions

Chapter 17 Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Causes and Case Studies for EMI
17.3 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
17.4 RF/Microwave Shielding for EMI/EMC
17.4.1 Introduction
17.4.2 Physical Understanding of RF Shielding
17.4.3 Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of RF Shield and Shielding Effectiveness
17.4.4 Issues Affecting the Shielding Effectiveness and their Mitigation
17.5 EMI/EMC Standards, Regulations and Testing
17.6 Human Exposure Limit to Electromagnetic Radiation
Review Questions

Chapter 18 An Emerging Topic of Microwave Engineering: Metamaterials and Metasurfaces
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Counter-intuitiveness of LHM
18.3 Plasmonic and Transmission Line Metamaterials
18.3.1 Plasmonic Metamaterials Negative permittivity with thin-wire (TW) and cut-wire (CW) Negative permeability with split-ring resonator (SRR)
18.3.2 Transmission Line Metamaterials CRLH transmission line characteristics and ZOR Design of unit cell of CRLH
18.4 Properties of Electromagnetic Signal Propagation Through LHM
18.5 Metamaterial-inspired Microwave Components and Antennae
18.5.1 CSRR Loaded Microstrip Patch Antenna Design
18.5.2 CRLH Based Microwave Filter Design
18.6 Problems and Possibilities of Terahertz and Optical Metamaterials
18.7 Metamaterials: Application Scenario, Challenges and Possibilities
18.8 Metasurfaces or 2D Metamaterials
Review Questions

Chapter 19 Applications of Microwave Engineering
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Microwave Engineering in Communication Applications
19.2.1 Broadband Microwave Access for Mobile Communications
19.2.2 Microwave Communication Links
19.2.3 Microwave Remote Sensing
19.3 Industrial Applications of Microwaves
19.3.1 Drying
19.3.2 Vulcanisation
19.3.3 Thickness Monitoring of Metal/Dielectric Sheets in Rolling Mills
19.4 Microwaves in Medical Applications
19.4.1 Microwave Hyperthermia and Microwave Ablation Microwave hyperthermia Microwave ablation
19.5 Microwave Cooking: Design and Usage of Microwave Oven
19.6 Microwave/RF Life-detection Systems
19.7 Some Emerging Applications of Microwave Engineering
19.7.1 Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) System
19.7.2 RF MEMS for Microwave Components
19.7.3 Microwave and Terahertz Imaging Microwave imaging Terahertz (THz) imaging
Review Questions

Appendix: Useful Formulae and Tables for Microwave Engineering
Further Reading